In the section devoted to career choice, planning, and development. I noticed that all the conceptual issues are spelt out in clear and unequivocal terms. The ability to do this thoroughly and effectively is quite impressive.
Section 2, which captions, “Self-employment”, is highly educative. This is a section where a great number of people will immensely benefit from the impressive ideas in the book. It provides different ways of making life comfortable for people; and more importantly, making them be self-reliant. A very good idea that is established here is the fact that there are alternatives to paid jobs.
Section 3, which is the last section, is titled “Comfortable Retirement”. This concerns mostly workers who are in paid employment. The concept of “retirement” and fears associated with it are carefully and exhaustively discussed. A research report given in chapter 16 in the third section makes the book more intellectual. This gives an additional feather to the cap of the book. A pertinent question raised in this report is ‘Can a government or employer who finds it very difficult to pay salaries to be able to pay gratuity and pension?’ This is food for thought for every reader. And to fail to prepare very well for one’s retirement is to prepare to fail or suffer during the retirement days.
On the basis of the foregoing, and because succeeding in a book writing task is obviously great and no mean task. I wish to congratulate the author on this great feat. Therefore, in view of its useful contents, I heartily recommend this book to students, teachers, guidance and counselors, those who are still in active service and retirees.
Professor Joseph Abiodun Adegbile
Institute of Education
The University of Ibadan.
Conceptual Issues … … … … … … 16
Definition of Concepts
Preparing A Job Winning Application and C.V. … … … 23
- Job Application
- The Job Winning Curriculum Vitae/Resume
Job Interview … … … … … … 31
- Basic Information
- Preparation and Background information
- Checklist for interview
- Types of Interview
- On the interview day and during the interview process
- Negotiation of salaries and incentives
- Why people do not secure their most desired jobs
- General preparation for an interview
Career: General Perspective … … … … … 41
- What is a Career?
- Factors Affecting Career Choice
- Other Factors Affecting Career Choice
- Types of Unemployment
- Implications of gainful employment and unemployment
Career Choice, Planning and Development… … … 57
- Basic Process of Career Planning
- Career Planning and Development, A joint Responsibility
- Involvement in Career Planning and Development
- Positive steps towards Career Choice and Decisions
- Personal and Practical Guide for Formulating Career Action Plan
- Sustaining Career Planning Development
- Framework for Successful Career Planning and Development
Trends in Career Development… … … … 73
- Multi-Disciplinary Employment Approach
- Casualisation and Contractualisation of Labour
Coping with Work Environment … … … … 87
- Contemporary Work Environment
- Future Work Environment
- Challenges and Coping Strategies
Self-employment: Alternative to Paid Employment …… 92
- The relevance of Early Self-Employed/Entrepreneurship
- Transiting from paid Employment to Self-Employment
Organisational Framework of a Business Take-off…… 96
- Pre-Incorporation/Registration Activities
- Post Incorporation/Registration Activities
- Factors Affecting Business Decision
Feasibility Studies/Capital Requirement … … …. 102
- Business Review
- Stages of Business Development
- Capital Requirement
- Source of Capital/Finance
Principles of Sustainable Business Development… … … … 107
- Issues in Sustainability of Business
- Secrets of Business Success
- Investment Opportunity
Family Business … … … … … … … 121
- What is Family Business?
- Characteristics of a family business
- Contributions of a family business to growth and development
- Planning for continuity and effective succession
The Concept of Retirement … … … … … 128
- Retirement is inevitable
- The age factor in retirement
- Fears associated with retirement
- Family factors in retirement decision
Action Plans for Retirement … … … … … 145
- What is retirement planning all about?
- Retirement checklist/information
- Retirement business
- Retirement phobia questionnaire
Handling Life After Retirement … … … … … 159
- Stages of retirement.
- Life: Your Greatest Treasure.
- Issues on stress
Research Report on Retirement … … … … … 170
- Theoretical Framework
- Analysis of Continuity and Disengagement Theories
Conclusion … … … … … … … … 184
Pension Fund Administrators in Nigeria … … … … 189
Bibliography … … … … … … … … 195
The definition and clear understanding of the connection between certain key concepts will no doubt help to achieve meaningful career choice and development. These concepts are Job, Vocation, Profession, Work, and Occupation. Furthermore, their interrelationship brings into fore their importance to a person’s career choice and career as a whole.
In view of the above, we shall first consider in-depth definitions and interrelations.
DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
A job is a particular task, duty or specific schedule that is performed on a regular or agreed basis in an organisation or within the society for several reasons. The series or combinations of various jobs being performed usually culminate in occupation or work and this varies from one organisation to the other. For instance, teaching is a job which is part of the overall work of a Lecturer; others being research, writing and community development.
A job is either classified as high or low trust and this varies from country to country. The examples below are drawn from the Nigerian experience.
High Trust Jobs
High trust jobs are jobs that are termed to be honorable and they attract societal recognition. They are termed noble professions and anyone who engages in any of such jobs is treated with respect in society. Those involved in high trust jobs carry along with them their job-based personalities; anywhere they find themselves, they enjoy front seat recognition and have access to comfortable work and post-work opportunities. Apart from the above, the more experienced they become on the job, the more valuable their input.
The list of jobs that could be regarded as high trust is long and relative. However, the dynamism with which you handle your job, coupled with the societal perception of such jobs goes a long way in determining your job rating. Examples of high trust jobs include occupying important management positions within an organisation, performing highly skilled jobs within the society, etc.
Low Trust Jobs
Low trust job holders are those who render extremely personalised services for the well-being of those who perform high trust jobs. Low trust job holders are often known to display a high level of self-pity, resentment and job alienation and their income is usually low. Those in this category include watchmen, drivers, stewards, cooks, etc. Some professionals could be categorised here but as they develop their skills and get more experienced, they are apt to get jobs with much better conditions of service.
Vocation refers to activities, trade or occupation and others constituting a life-style expressed in time, energy and ability. Examples of a vocation include pastoral and related activities, the Military, Para-military, politics and all forms of counseling work. Elements of a vocation include being specifically gifted, the absolute commitment to work, enjoyment of great autonomy, deriving feeling of importance and intrinsically rewarding.
This is a form of employment that is respected in the society as honourable and is available only to an educated person after training in some special branch of knowledge. Those who engage themselves in making living by satisfying the needs of others could also be referred to as professionals. Therefore, to be a successful professional, one must possess the capability, skill, ability, and talents that are suitable for such a profession in many professions, the practitioners have to develop their skills and show a high level of performance to enjoy or attract a high level of recognition or patronage. The following are types of professions:
The realistic professional belongs to the group of persons who do their work by seeking objective, concrete goals, and tasks. They use things, tools, machines, people, animals, etc. to perform their duties. These professionals include skilled labour workers in agriculture, engineering, outdoor conservation work, and the like.
The intellectual professional is one who does his work through the use of intelligence, manipulation of ideas, words, and symbols. Such a person is best matched with an environment that brings him in contact with abstract and creative abilities. Such occupations include writing, teaching and so on. A person involved in investigative work, on the other hand, is one who does his job by selecting goals that frequently involve working with ideas and require an extensive amount of thinking. It involves searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
The social professional is the person who does his work by selecting tasks that demand the use of interpersonal skills and has an interest in other people. Such a person is best matched with an environment that requires him to interpret and modify human behaviour, such as social work, counseling, religious activities, teaching, and work which requires organising others.
A conventional professional is a person who copes with life by selecting goals and tasks that are sanctioned by society and custom. Conventional professionals frequently get involved in following set procedures and routines. Such professionals are best matched with environments that require systematic and routine processing, various types of office work and administration. It can include working with data and details more than with ideas. There is usually a clear line of authority to follow.
The artistic professional is one who uses feelings, intuition, emotions, and imagination to create artworks or products. Such a person is best matched with an environment that requires the interpretation or creation of artistic forms through taste, feelings, and imagination, such as writing, fine arts, and performing arts.
The enterprising professional is one who copes with life by selecting goals and tasks that permit the expression of high energy, enthusiasm, creativity, adventure, dominance, and impulsiveness. The enterprising profession frequently involves starting up and carrying out projects. It sometimes requires risk-taking and often deals with businesses. Such a professional is best matched with an environment that places a premium on verbal capability, directing and persuading other people, salesmanship, entrepreneurship. management, politics, Foreign Service, and the like.
However, some people train for a profession which they may not be eventually practised due to one circumstance or the other or because it is in contrast with their personal disposition, orientation, and environment.
Work could be described as the combination of jobs, duties, or tasks that a person does, or responsibilities assigned to a person especially in other to earn money. Work may be classified into either brain or handwork; it can also be distinguished by its nature into different categories:
The Classifications of Work
Brain works are those works that are done through the creation of ideas, decision-making, execution of policies and other intellectual activities. The performance level of brain workers is measured in abstract terms such as the quality, efficiency, and effectiveness of their output. They are usually highly skilled. For instance, Managing Directors, Vice-Chancellors, Accountants, Teachers, Administrative Officers, Entrepreneurs, Engineers etc. are examples of brain workers.
Unlike the brain works, handwork, requires the engagement of intensive labour. They also demand the physical dissipation of energy and are usually evaluated in concrete terms such as numbers of blocks molded, unit completed or areas covered. Examples of hand workers are bricklayers, gardeners, load carriers etc.
Nature of Work Extension Work
This is a kind of work that has no starting or closing hours. It has no specific workplace and no distinction between office and home in the course of performing one’s duties. The work of Pastors or Military personnel could be regarded as extension work because they are on duty at all times and places.
This is a kind of work that terminates at the office or workplace. This does not extend to the home front. For instance, the work of some technical operators ends the moment they close for the day as the type of equipment they operate could only be found in their workplace.
This is a type of work people are not comfortable doing. At the slightest opportunity, those engaged in opposition work usually abandon it due to either lack of interest, lack of dignity or low economic returns. For example, some who engage in labor-intensive work usually look for a way of escape while those who feel they are engaged in uncomplimentary work do not want people to know what they do. Certain categories of workers are noted for hiding their uniforms or tools in bags while going to or returning from work. Therefore, opposition works are principally determined by the individual perceptions of those who engage in them.
Generally, possession of adequate knowledge of the nature of work by employees is imperative for a successful career as this will assist in the course of assessing the degree of work value, involvement, and satisfaction which will, in turn, assist in taking appropriate steps towards choosing a career or taking steps to correct unfavourable work-related experience.
This is an individual’s main source of earning a living. It is the main job, employment, business, trade, handwork, vocation, and others in which he or she is engaged at a particular time and done on a regular basis. Occupation could further be described as a productive activity or a clearly defined work that could be found in various settings in which one is engaged permanently and which occupies one’s productive time. For instance, farming, teaching, processing of shipping documents, pastoral ministries are forms of occupation. In a similar vein, an occupation may be a network or combination of various activities drawn from the above examples.